BSP Issues
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The body segment parameters (BSPs) refer to the inertial parameters of the body segments, such as mass, CM location and three principal moments of inertia. CM location is used in computing the location of the segmental CM. Segmental masses along with the segmental CM positions are used in computing the CM of the system of rigid bodies such as the whole body. The principal moments of inertia are used in the angular kinetics.

The inertial parameters relate the kinematic quantities to the kinetic quantities. All the kinetic quantities include the inertial properties, mass and moment of inertia (inertia tensor), in the formula. In other words, the accuracy in the kinetic analysis partially depends on the accuracy of the BSPs used.

Investigators generally choose the BSP estimation method from a pool of available estimation methods. Different from the random experimental errors involved in the digitizing and anthropometric measurement, the error from the method of BSP estimation can be systematic. More individualized methods would provide more accurate BSPs. Group-oriented BSP estimation methods may generate inaccurate BSPs for each individual. In other words, individualization of the BSPs to some extent would be necessary.

The issues in this section are:

BSP Handling Strategies
BSP Estimation Methods

For geometric inertia models, one has to deal with a group of known geometric shapes. The BSP functions, such as the volume, CM, and volume moments of inertia, are compiled in BSP Equations of the Geometric Shapes.

For the details regarding the BSPs and their use, see

Rigid Body Dynamics
Motion in a Rotating Reference Frame
System of Rigid Bodies


Young-Hoo Kwon, 1998-